Common Complications During Pregnancy
Anemia during pregnancy:
Anemia is a very common complication during pregnancy and it is very important that it should be diagnosed during the early stages of pregnancy. Anemia is a condition, in which the red blood cell carries oxygen to the mother and baby becomes low in count. At the time of pregnancy the number of red blood cells and plasma (the liquid component of blood) should increase. Iron Deficiency Anemia is the most common type of anemia in pregnancy. At the time of pregnancy the iron stores which the mother have in her body will be used by the baby, if the mother has anemia then the body will not have enough iron store to produce blood cells.
Asthma during pregnancy:
Women who never had asthma before are prone to asthma during pregnancy. It not only affects the mother but also the fetus by the depletion of oxygen supply. But this does not mean that pregnant women with asthma are prone to high risk, pregnant women with properly controlled asthma will have a normal pregnancy with little or no increased risk to themselves or their fetus. Most of the asthma treatments are safe use in pregnant women. If the pregnant women never had asthma earlier and during pregnancy if she experiences shortness of breath or wheezing, then it should be treated immediately for a safe delivery.
Bleeding and spotting:
Bleeding or spotting during the early weeks of pregnancy may be a common pregnancy symptom. There are number of reasons such as when the fertilized egg implants itself into the wall of the uterus it is called as implantation bleeding. This alone can cause a day or two days of bleeding. However if you are in the early stages of pregnancy, but still you may experience some bleeding similar to what you may expect if you were about to start your normal monthly cycle. The body hormones will prevent the normal cycle from occurring while you are pregnant, it is not uncommon that some women may experience some bleeding around the same time as they would normally have their period.
Incompetent cervix and Cerclage:
The term “cervical insufficiency” (CI) means opening of the cervix at the early stage, before the baby is full term. This condition is also called incompetent cervix. You can find cervix at the base opening of the uterus. If the cervix is healthy, it becomes very thin during labor and opens at the end of pregnancy. The baby is delivered through the cervix via the birth canal. With CI, the cervix opens before the labor. Usually the woman has no symptoms. Few women know they have cervical insufficiency until they have a miscarriage or premature birth. The woman may deliver the baby without feeling contractions.
Depression during pregnancy:
It is found that pregnant women are prone to depression more often than normal women. This may be due to the cyclic hormonal imbalance, in particular the two main female hormones-estrogens and progesterone. This period of depression leads to mood swings like irritability, anxious, tiredness, hopeless, discouraged, annoyed, isolated and lonely. . This is not a serious condition and it can be treated through extra love, care and protection. Depression is found to have relation with a chemical imbalance in the brain that makes it hard for the cells to communicate with one another. Depression can also be hereditary, which means it runs in families.
It is an illness, like diabetes or heart disease. The symptoms of postpartum depression affect your quality of life and include:
• Feeling sad or down very often
• Frequent crying or tearfulness
• Feeling restless, irritable or anxious
• Loss of interest or pleasure in life
• Loss of appetite
• Less energy and motivation to do things
• Difficulty sleeping, including trouble falling asleep, trouble staying asleep or sleeping more than usual
• Feeling worthless, hopeless or guilty
• Unexplained weight loss or gain
• Feeling like life isn't worth living
• Showing little interest in your baby
Preeclampsia during pregnancy:
It is very common condition in pregnant women and is also called as toxemia. It is marked by high blood pressure followed with a high level of protein in the urine. Women with this kind of condition will notice swelling in the feet, legs and hands. Preeclampsia, usually appears during the latter part of second or third trimesters, sometimes it may occur earlier. This condition usually starts after the 20th week of pregnancy which leads to kidney problems because of high protein in urine. Preeclampsia affects the placenta, and it can affect the mother's kidney, liver, and brain. When preeclampsia leads to seizures, the condition is known as eclampsia-the second leading cause of maternal death in the many countries of the world. Preeclampsia leads to low birth weight, premature birth, and stillbirth.
Managing preexisting diabetes during pregnancy:
Pregnant women who have diabetes before pregnancy (preexisting diabetes) are considered to have a high-risk pregnancy. A high-risk pregnancy doesn’t necessarily mean that you’ll have problems. Instead, it means that your health provider will pay special attention to your health and may work with other specialized health providers to help you have a healthy pregnancy.
This is also called as premature labor which begins before 37 weeks of pregnancy. During this time the fetus is not fully grown and it may not be able to survive outside the womb. Health care providers will often take steps to stop labor if it occurs before this time. A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered a preterm birth (or premature birth). It is one of the leading causes of infant death across the globe. Predicting women who experience preterm labor or deliver their babies preterm is very less.
But there are factors that place a woman at higher risk for preterm labor or birth:
• Infections, such as bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis
• Shortened cervix
• Previously given birth preterm
Labor and delivery complications:
• When the baby is not positioned normal it is considered to be common complication that is faced during labor.
• Another potential complication during labor & delivery is an abnormal heart rate for the baby.
• Problems with the placenta can also cause complications during labor and delivery.
• Fetal meconium can also be a complication during labor and delivery.
• The anesthetic medications used during labor and delivery can sometimes cause complications as well.
Shoulder dystocia is defined as a delivery in which additional maneuvers are required to deliver the fetus. Shoulder dystocia occurs when normal gentle downward traction has failed and the fetal anterior shoulder impacts against the maternal symphysis following delivery of the vertex. Shoulder dystocia in rare cases results from impaction of the posterior shoulder on the sacral promontory. It is diagnosed at the time when the shoulders fail to deliver shortly after the fetal head. In shoulder dystocia, it is the chin that presses against the walls of the perineum. Shoulder dystocia is an obstetrical emergency, with fetal demise occurring within about 5 minutes if the infant is not delivered, due to compression of the umbilical cord within the birth canal.